One of the most important impulses of all living things is to defend itself credit card offers from attack by predators or individuals of the same species competing for territory, food or reproduction. Unlike animals that have defense mechanisms built into its structure that fits the human being who has to defend and develop methods of defense. When a method is effective in other people copy it or intend to learn from who developed it, which is formalized not just technique but also the methods of transmission and creates the genesis of the martial arts of Japan. 5
Regarding the origins of art, there is a famous story about the warrior Sekuni of Izumo who defeated and killed Tajima no Kehaya in Shimane Prefecture in the presence of Emperor Suinin . According to descriptions, the techniques used in this conflict included strikes to vital points, throws, submissions or submissions, and armament.
Jujitsu probably thrives on throwing techniques, choking, and dislocation from the Sumai, the forerunner of the Sumo , strikes to vital points that could come from the martial knowledge of Chinese refugees during riots in China in the thirteenth century fleeing the Manchu dynasty and who brought with them knowledge of the forms of unarmed combat of kung fu / wu shu or Chuan-fa , and techniques developed during the Japanese feudal period by different clans from fighting in armor or Kumiuchi.
Although at first to each of these arts developed by individuals or clans was given a particular name were then grouped under a common name calling them generically as Yawara or Jujutsu 6 and each was called “style” or “school” of art generic ryu-ha in Japan .
Although the initial influence of Shuai Shiao or techniques and tactics takedowns and throws, from the martial arts of China is clear. The founder, Master Jigoro Kano said in a statement made in 1888durante the early Meiji period in Japan, the type of Judo based fighting dams and demolition of Jiu-jitsu, is of Japanese and Chinese specifically .
It is also clear that the classical systems of Jujitsu / Jujutsu place greater emphasis on ground work newaza , the traditional weapons training, and also have technical idori or control from the position kneeling seiza (traditional sitting with erect on the legs folded underneath hips) as well as techniques shikko (displacement of knees required visits to the Shogun or the Emperor) that are characteristic. But also many throwing techniques only parallel in Chinese or Mongolian martial arts, this can be seen clearly when you can determine the influence of Japanese modern art in other releases such as in the case of Hapkido Korean. 7
All Nihon jujutsu have certain characteristics, which help to give a traditional look to the respective school. Among these, include:
Reishiki that represents a set of standards of behavior and respect in the Dōjō .
The Dojo has a floor usually covered with a traditional mat or tatami .
The uniform practice, which often is all white ( Keikogui稽古着) and often adds a skirt – very wide trousers called hakama (袴).
Rustic simplicity in the setting, decor and attitudes that are defined as wabi-sabi .
Using a ranking system called classic Menkyo kaiden , different from the traditional grading system imposed by the Judo and crowded by the karate , or system of belts / colored ribbons dani ( kyu / give ).
The lack of championship trophies, long-term contracts, badges, emblems or anything else distracting.
While there are differences in appearance and in the techniques of traditional jūjutsu several systems, there are several similarities: 8
Related stories and common origin in Japan, where very often are related to a family or clan.
The main form of teaching is through observation and repetition of techniques, often according to patterns defined in so-called kata ( prescribed forms ) alone or in couples school characteristics.
The techniques include punches but not as an end in themselves but to facilitate key / dislocations of the joints, launches, demolition or bottlenecks.
Generally include a philosophical and ethical practice based on the code of samurai and Bushido .
They have a grading system based on general certificate of fitness, which in turn evaluates the attitude of the practitioner.
Etymology and transliteration
Word pronounced by a native Japanese
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There are many ways to write and speak using this martial art. In Japanese , his name is written with kanji , ideograms Chinese , but the transliteration of the Japanese word has been made in recent years several times and using different methods in each of them, since Japan was forced by the United States to open its ports in 1854 .
The word Jūjutsu, in the current standard is derived from the transliteration system Hepburn . However, in the first half of the twentieth century were more likely to talk about or jiujitsu jujitsu. Since in this way became known and popular art long ago, is the word in use in some countries of the West , despite what some exact results jitsu for pronunciation of the second kanji of the word.
They are called Koryu styles and schools that verifiably existed before the Meiji Restoration in 1868, 9 while some of these styles have survived later disappeared and is still practiced kogusoku Araki Ryu , Asayama Ichiden Ryu , Tenji Shinyo Ryu , Yoshin Ryu , Miura Ryu , 10 Ryoi Shinto ryu , Takenouchi Ryu , Fusen-ryu , Shin No Shindo , Kyushin Ryu , Ryu Shiten , Sōsuishi ryu , Sekiguchi Ryu , Daito Ryu Aikijujutsu 11 and Koppo jutsu . These are generally characterized by a system Menkyo instead of the new system or belt-Dan and kyu traditional techniques that are lethal safeguarded in a document handed down from generation to generation of teachers to pupils, called Shoden makimono . 12
Also known as jujitsu styles are modern and jujitsu methods that were created subsequent to 1868 as opposed to Koryu jujutsu styles created previously, many of these modern styles are looking for comprehensive training of the individual, and use the Kyu system -are native to Butokukai and turned-colored belts of judo to identify the levels before the black belt similar to those created by Mikonosuke Kawaishi for judo in Europe as opposed to traditional system Menkyo kaiden .
Examples of jujitsu gendai include Hakko Ryu of Okuyama Ryuho closely linked structurally to the Daito-Ryu Aikijujutsu, or its derivative Hakko Ryu Denshin the Danzan Ryu of H. Okazaki the Zendo ryu ju-jutsu , or jiu-jitsu that although he was taken to Brazil by Mitsuyo Maeda to mid-twentieth century was developed by Carlos Gracie in Brazil 13 and various systems Goshin Budo such as Danzan Ryu Henry Seishiro Okazaki, the Miyama-ryu of Antonio Pereira or Dentou Nihon Ryu that despite what its name suggests was developed in the Dominican Republic, Santo Domingo by Dr. Alejandro Ivan Serrallés Sagalowitz. 14 These styles of jiu-jitsu is practiced throughout and wide, as is clear many systems gendai jiu-jitsu, have been founded by descendants of Japanese or even not Japanese.
Martial arts derived
Some of his direct descendants are found in the Gendai Budo these are the martial arts that were created in contemporary times based on the old schools such as Judo and Aikido derived from the synthesis of various styles of jiu-jitsu Koryu the first and of Daito-ryu Aikijujutsu the second. These were created subsequent to the Meiji Restoration (early twentieth century) with the support and control of the Dai Nihon Butokukai . There are also variations and styles developed later in the 20th century as the Nihon Tai-Jitsu or self defense or military Korean Hapkido . It is important to note that both jujitsu as judo have had a great influence on the inclusion or reinterpretation of several joint dislocation, chokes, and throws included in the movements of the kata or forms of traditional martial arts groups especially in the case of Japanese styles of Karate Do, as several of the Japanese masters, past and contemporary had or have contact with art, or were trained in jiu-jitsu or judo , or kendo (Japanese fencing modern).
Development of Jujitsu in Europe
The London Club Bartisu is the first European school of jiu-jitsu since it was founded in 1899 by English engineer, WEBarton-Wright, inspired by the jiu-jitsu, the club is frequented by the aristocracy of London. British Captain Hughes is part of the Kodokan in Tokyo and in Britain comes from Professor Japanese jiu-jitsu, Tani Yokio opening the school Japanese Club on Oxford Street in London, where he soon two Frenchmen, Jean-Joseph Renaud and Guy de Montgrilhard nicknamed Renie enroll.
In 1904, Renaud and Montgrilhard opened the first dojo in Paris at number 55 on the street Ponthie with the coaching of two Japanese experts, teachers and Kanaya Miyakie.
On October 26, 1905 Renie performed a bout with Georges Dubois famous fighter that despite the weight difference is due soon achieving great popularity but is short-lived when soon after against a Russian wrestler loses over 100 kg.
In 1906, German in Berlin Eric Rahn auto insurance quotes opened the first school of jiu-jitsu, while in England Allan Smith is the first European to receive a black belt.
In 1908, Le Prieur will be the first Frenchman who studied Judo in Japan, but unfortunately after returning to France not finding who practice within their technical level gradually leaves the jiu-jitsu and is dedicated to diving.
In 1924, K. Ishiguro and A. Aida, both 5 th dan, teach jiu-jitsu at the Sporting Club de Paris. The Israeli-born British scientist Moshe Feldenkrais Jiujitsu club opens France supported the marriage Joliot Curie.
In 1931 another Japanese master Mikonosuke Kawaishi moved to London and sets the judo club and Anglo-Japanese Judo teaches at the University of Oxford, but in 1935 he moved to Paris to teach Ju-Jitsu Club in Israel, led by Mirkin for early open his own club called the Franco-Japonais Club which later merged with the Jujitsu Club de France.
In September 1933, Master Jigoro Kano and his assistant Shuidi Nagaoka in the Championship of France are a number of demonstrations and lectures.
In 1937 Georges London paint ball student Kawaishi Ishiguro and then open the Club Saint Honoré de jiu-jitsu, judo and karate in 274 of the Rue St. Honore in Paris city center making it the first disciple of authorized Kawaishi running a dojo, the teacher moves to London Uruguay in Latin America in 1958 to spread the jiu-jitsu to the country. 15
The jiu-jitsu in Latin America
The jiu-jitsu in Argentina was introduced by Yoshio Ogata , assistant Hagiwara Shihan of Jujitsu that offer a contract to teach jiu-jitsu to the officers of the Navy beginning November 29, 1906. Later through the Dr. Carlos Delcasse , an outstanding personality and a famous athlete who opened a gym frequented by famous athletes of the time and manages income Ogata to the police of the city of Buenos Aires, as self-defense instructor in 1914 acts as a professor of defense in the National Gendarmerie of the Province of Neuquén and in 1918 started teaching at the Club Gimnasia city of Buenos Aires in 1938 continues teaching classes of Ju-Jitsu Dojo in his own called ” Ausonia “, located in Santa Fe and Montevideo street in Buenos Aires until his death on 1 July 1970 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. 16
In Uruguay only in 1958 Georges London comes from France where he founded the Institute Shobukan teaches jiu-jitsu, judo and karate, his students and Renshi Sergio Sergio Ribero Anadón continued his work in the country.
In Brazil introduced in 1917, with the arrival in Brazil of Mitsuyo Maeda , a professor of Kodokan, which is supported by an influential politician named Gaston Gracie , Maeda began teaching Judo Gaston’s oldest son, Carlos, in the city of Belem who then taught his brothers Oswaldo, Gastao, George and helium. The Gracies in 1925 traveled to Rio de Janeiro where they opened the first academy of Jiu Jitsu that pronounced as that over time has achieved a global reach. But for the Japanese community in Brazil teachers Katsutoshi Naito and Ogawa Tyuzo represented the greatest influence on the development of local jiu-jitsu.
In Mexico In his book “Seven Japanese migration in Mexico (1890 – 1978),” Maria Elena Ota Mishima relates that in 1910 the head of Japanese migrants, Harada Shinzo to be known as an expert in Daito-Ryu Aiki Jujitsu was called by the Secretary of War and Navy and taught at school for 8 years military cadets who were counted among the children of Don Porfirio Diaz. In 1926 another Japanese professor ( Nabutaka Sataka ) is taken to Mexico by order of General Plutarco Elias Calles to give classes to the military and was also commissioned to teach this martial art in the National School Teachers (Normal), where he taught their knowledge to students of that era.
In Cuba was introduced in 1925 by the renshi Sigetoshi Morita and ten years after its death is formed in his honor Ryu Morita school, When does revive the Jiu Jitsu on the island a few years later formed Akijama Shirobei Ryu schools Simon Ryu and Vamato Mijazawa that form the current basis of Cuban Jiu Jitsu. With the revolution one of the judokas that integrates the process is Andrew Kolychkine Thompson, born in Petrograd on March 11, 1913 and married to a Cuban so decided to settle there, Kolychkine sensei was a student of Jean De Herdt, who in turn was a disciple of sensei Mikonosuke Kawaishi and developed mainly Cuban judo influence the development of martial arts in all countries of the region and remains today.
In Costa Rica Jujitsu began in 1955 year in which the Madrigal Orlando Valverde sensei who had learned with Professor Kolychkine in Cuba. Install the first academy of judo and jiu-jitsu. Call Costa Rican Academy of judo and jiu jitsu, the shihan Rican unfortunately died June 25, 1991. Leaving a great legacy.
In Colombia jujitsu comes about in 2003, but the practice itself is new, both traditional, such as Brazilian jiu-jitsu spread, thanks to the efforts of the Colombian Federation of Jujitsu and various schools of called mixed martial arts .
The ju-jitsu or jujutsu or jiu-jitsu ( 柔术 , jujutsu ? ) , combines combat techniques that were developed during the feudal era of Japan by samurai to defend when you are disarmed. These techniques may be classified into three main categories: atemi waza (striking techniques), swimming waza (throwing technique) and katame waza (technical control) to control an opponent.
In Japan , jujutsu ( 柔术? ) literally means “technical flexibility” or “gentle art” or “method to make the most flexibility.” “Ju” for flexibility and “Jutsu” for technique. There are various approximate phonetic transcriptions which explains the different spellings 1 . Spelling ju-jitsu is the most widely used in French literature, although this does not correspond to consonance.
The generic term “jujitsu” hides a much more complex historical reality: indeed, there never existed a single discipline and strictly defined corresponding to this term, which corresponds to reality vagueness of that designation “technical / art flexibility “. This was the discipline of unarmed combat, part of the curriculum taught by each of the many Japanese schools (ryu’s), which have gradually dwindled at the end of the feudal era. What is commonly called “jujitsu” means today is a good teaching specific to a particular school (this is a minority practice, and in this case, it is preceded by the name of the school in question), is an educational gathering techniques inherited from these schools and transmitted at the beginning of the modern era and even after World War II to a wider audience, thanks to the work of identification and preservation techniques began at the end of xix th century.
At the beginning of xx th century , people were concerned about the disappearance of this knowledge, due to the modernization of the army, and collected techniques from different schools (ryū Ha) of jujitsu into a modern practice adapted to the needs of the new company, so were born the judo , whose components come mostly from school Kito (Kito-ryu), the aikido , later offshoot of the Daito school (Daito Ryu) or more recently the Brazilian jiu-jitsu , born of the evolution of a variant of judo (Kosen), herself educated by the school Fusen (Fusen-ryu). True nebula behind buildings more or less recent, ju-jitsu is often rightly described as “mother art” 2 .
Although jujitsu is not the cause of karate , which is a technique Okinawan and Chinese , we found several similarities with some older forms of fighting practiced on the islands of Ryūkyū . Long before the advent of Tode in Okinawa and in the archipelago of Ryūkyū , the islanders were already practicing a form of “Yawara” from which flow the ju-jitsu and taijutsu . The taijutsu and jujitsu at that time were still inseparable from this form of “Yawara”. This taijutsu was a method of warfare closely guarded secret by the royal family of islands Ryūkyū , the “Motobu.” It was an old method and included in a style of Ryūkyū Kenpo which was known as the “Udûn Ti.” It is now known of Motobu Ryū .
Summary [ hide ]
1 The term jujutsu
2 The origins of jujitsu
3 The legend of Dr. Akiyama
4 Edo period
5 Meiji Era
6 expansionary period
7 Contemporary Period
8 Belts (the lowest level to highest)
9 The jujitsu in film and graphic arts
10 Notes and references
11 See also
11.2 External Links
The term jujutsu
Correct pronunciation of jujutsu.
The term jujutsu reflecting more rigorously the Japanese word for this martial art is composed of two kanji . Method of romanization of Japanese the most common, the method Hepburn , these kanji should be defined as:
Ju ( 柔? ) : soft, tender, soft, flexible
Jutsu ( 术? ) : art, medium, technique
The jujutsu thus translates into ” the gentle art “or” the art of flexibility 3 . ”
Typically found “the gentle art” written in another way, either: “jujitsu” or “jujitsu.” Also according to the method Hepburn, Denver Divorce Lawyer “jujitsu” or “jujitsu” would be defined as 4 , 5 :
Ju ( 柔? ) : soft, tender, soft, flexible
Jitsu ( 実? ) : truth, reality, sincerity
We note here CrossFit Denver that writing the kanji jutsu ( 术? ) is very different than writing the kanji jitsu ( 実? ) . The jujitsu would be translated as follows: ” sweet truth “,” the reality of flexibility “or” the sincerity of the tender “, etc.. Which is very far from the fighting method that is the ” jujutsu “. Confusion and poor pronunciation between “jutsu” and “jitsu” back to the early exchanges with Japanese and Western in the late 19 th century. For various reasons, often political, the correction to the Romanization was never made. By cons, all using the right kanji writing of this Japanese martial art, jujutsu ( 柔术? ) .
The origins of jujitsu
Jujutsu technique: Kata Guruma .
The main concept of jujitsu is ju , literally the “flexibility”, that is to say, avoiding frontal attack to control a stronger opponent without opposition force. By this technique, ju yoku go o sei suru : the soft overcomes the hard. This principle has given rise to a set of sophisticated techniques of avoidance, line the opposing force, and control of the opponent moves, strikes and capital obtained from monitoring vital points and joints.
Methods of combat known as ju-jitsu are 1500 years old at least. The beginnings of jujitsu can be located in the turbulent period in Japan that fell between the VIII th and xvi th century . This period Japan experienced incessant civil wars and conventional weapons systems were developed and tested on the battlefield. The techniques of close combat were an integral part of these systems to effectively fight opponents wearing armor and weapons 6 .
The birth of jujitsu probably coincides with the origin of the class of samurai dated to the year 792 . The army at that time consisted of soldiers traveling on foot and armed with spears . The officers were recruited from the young son of the great families and were trained in the use of the bow , in command of the troops and also to unarmed combat. The Emperor Kammu built the Butokuden , a formal school for these officers that we know under the name of Samurai 7 .
At the end of the xiii th century , the Mongols tried to invade Japan and the samurai defended themselves for years in terrible battles. The xv th century , fencing masters of established Koryu Bujutsu (old traditional schools) to teach their style of kenjutsu , the art of the sword. Between 1467 and 1477 , the Ōnin war raged, this period saw the decline of the power of the Shoguns and the beginning of the Sengoku Jidai , the “age of the country at war,” for one hundred and fifty years.
The first jutsu ryū recognized was formed by Takenouchi Hisamori in 1532 and consisted of both techniques making use of the katana (sword), the bō (staff) and tanto (knife-sword) as unarmed combat . Jumps and kicks were little or not taught in jujitsu since the techniques were often intended for combatants wearing armor and that these techniques are risky and difficult to use on the battlefield (clothing unsuitable , risk of slip and fall, to sear the leg …). The term jujutsu began to be used in 1600 6 . However, many traditional schools continue to use other terms such as Yawara , koppō , dakentaijutsu , yoroi Kumiuchi , etc.. to describe their art. In fact, ju-jitsu is not a monolithic discipline because large differences can occur between all schools bearing the same name “jujutsu”.
The legend of Dr. Akiyama
Long ago, lived in Japan a Dr. Akiyama . During a trip to China , he met, in Manchuria , a religious sect who practiced a kind of self-defense based on knowledge of the human body. The doctor could not take part in training but was allowed to watch the exercises. Discipline, called Hakuda , allowed to dispose of an opponent armed and visibly stronger. Back in Japan, he tried to teach these skills to his family. But as he had not practiced, he did not understand the basic principle of Hakuda . This principle, he found a very natural way. He found that during winter, large branches of oak break under the weight of snow, while the thin branches of the willow bend and reject the snow. Such was the spirit of Hakuda : use force and weight of the opponent to defeat. He named this new method of fighting the jujutsu , the gentle art.
We find the deployment of branches under the snow in the legend of the creation of judo, but the observation that is made is attributed to the monk.
In 1603 , Tokugawa Ieyasu formed a military government and restored peace and economic and political stability in the country. This marked the beginning of the Edo period ( 1603 – 1868 ). Edited by Tokugawa Ieyasu, society was divided into five classes: the samurai , the peasants , the artisans , the merchants and non-persons. Only samurai were allowed to wear two swords, wakizashi (short sword) at any time and the katana only outside. This period of peace presented a problem for samurai battles that fault had no income. Do anything else would have lost their status for lowering to a lower rank. The masterless samurai became ronin . The government tried to help by giving them subsidies and pushing them towards education 8 . Many samurai became teachers of martial arts , but learning styles while unarmed. These unarmed styles were developed from the styles of armed combat and were collectively called jujutsu . During the peak period of Edo , there were 725 officially recognized styles each constituting a Koryu Bujutsu . These styles differ depending on whether they axaient more about the kicks, punches, projections or keys.
Much of the Plastic Bins population began to feel oppressed by the regime of Tokugawa and especially the growing class of merchants who wanted to increase its contacts with America and Europe . In 1868 , the regime of Tokugawa collapsed during a civil war known as the Meiji Restoration . This marked the end of the Edo period , the power left to return the shogun to the emperor. Since much of the samurai class supported the Shogun , it was dismantled by the Emperor Meiji , who introduced the “imperial oath of five articles.” The samurai class lost its privileged position so when feudalism was abolished in 1871 . In 1876 , Meiji declared a law banning the wearing of swords, the ultimate symbol of the warrior. The disgruntled samurai rebellions fomented many during the 1870s , the most famous was led by the hero of the restoration Saigo Takamori . They were suppressed with great difficulty by a newly formed national army. The samurai had permanently lost their profession and their right to wear swords. Their higher social status was revoked after a thousand years of existence.
The Japan fought its total reconstruction in a few decades. In retrospect, it seems to have been as rapid as radical. However, the changes were effected not happen overnight, but by successive alterations and moderate systems in place. The rehabilitation of the Tenno , who did little more than the imperial name, was the main vector. The first reform was to consolidate the administrative and social structures. From 1870 , the Daimyo were deprived of their fiefs, replaced by prefectures , and the peasants could buy land. The samurai had to abandon the port of Daisho (sword). Reduced to mere citizens, they lost everything at the same time economic privilege. But if rents lords diminished, they were still high enough that these reforms are not accompanied by modernists, as elsewhere, violent spasms 9 .
During the expansionism of Japan , an imperial edict declared criminal practice of the old martial arts styles. However, some masters continued to practice their art in secret or expatriated themselves to allow their style to continue. Only later, after the end of American occupation in 1951 that the prohibition on practicing jujitsu was lifted, allowing free circulation of art [ref. required] .
During the American occupation, the different styles of jujitsu were banned because they thought they could contribute to Japanese militarism. From that moment, a style dō , more focused on self-control and aggression (from the perspective of peace than other sports practices share), and arising from jujitsu gained popularity ( judo , aikido ) . Ju-jitsu from the field of martial denver accident lawyer arts utilities, it has not imposed as a sport as easily, and the competition only plays a minor role 10 . Ju-jitsu (or more precisely, the kosen judo , from ju-jitsu) was exported and taught by a Japanese immigrant (Mitsuo Maeda) in Brazil at the Gracie family , it became there a practice close to MMA , known as Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu 11 .
Several federations of schools and ju-jitsu have developed outside of Japan, first in a utilitarian logic. According to the federations, ju-jitsu could also be developed and practiced as a combat sport in which the martial techniques remained to trace, the regulatory framework of competitive sports requiring rigorous adaptation of the discipline of origin. Some federations and differ in their teaching ju-jitsu self-defense and sport ju-jitsu. Others do not practice any form of athletic competition and claim the inheritance purely martial discipline.
In France, Ju-jitsu is taught in clubs affiliated to the French Federation of Judo, ” jiu-jitsu “, kendo and related disciplines. Included are two aspects of self-defense technique and sports 12 . Originally, the traditional teaching in the form of self defense had a majority in France. In recent years, the fighting system is developing in parallel with the duo system. The duo system is the technical term. Demonstrations and competitions are per couple or not mixed and require great precision of movement and strength / muscle explosion 13 . The fighting system is a form of fighting taking place in three parts non-hierarchical in time: foot-fist, projection and submission. To win a fight is necessary to mark an ippon in each party ( full ippon ). This modern form is more aggressive and rapidly evolving, incorporating techniques of grappling or wrestling to gain efficiency. For some fighters it is an interesting alternative or a springboard for free fighting.
Two sticks are used: the Tambo, a small stick about 30 cm and Jo, a stick bigger than the previous ranging in size from ground to shoulder.
Jiu Jitsu [ ː dʑɯ dʑɯ.tsɯ. ] ( Japanese 柔术 , Jujutsu ? / i , “The gentle / compliant Art”) is one of the Japanese samurai native martial art of unarmed self-defense. Jiu Jitsu is independent of age and sex are trained and offers a wide range of opportunities for self-defense – including the enhancement of the character and self-consciousness – even to the peaceful resolution of conflicts.
Jiu Jitsu was practiced by samurai to a loss or prohibition of the main weapons ( Japanese sword (katana) , spear, sword, lance to keep fighting, archery), unarmed or with secondary weapons. It was initially passed as a secret art within the nobility, over time, but it was not exercised by Japanese nobility.
The objective of Jiu Jitsu is an attacker – regardless of whether he is armed or not – to make the most efficient harmless. This can be beat , kick , shock , throwing , leverage and strangulations done by the attacker is brought under control or incapacitated. This is the Jiu Jitsu not force against force are spent, but – according to the principle of “winning by giving” – as much as possible the strength of the attacker are used against him.
Contents [ Hide ]
2 Principle and Technology
1.3 generation in Japan
2.3 Development in Germany
4 Jiu Jitsu as the basis of other martial arts
1.6 Student Grade – Kyu grade (Mudansha)
6.2 Master Grade government help – Dan grades (Yudansha)
8 See also
9 External links
10 Notes and references
Jiu Jitsu is in the Japanese written by the two Sino-Japanese characters ( Kanji ) 柔术 written. The characters 柔 means “soft, gentle, flexible, resilient,” 术 called “technology, art,” composed means 柔术 So in martial arts-related context, “flexible plastic” is meant with that one can his campaign strategy depends on change of opponents fluently.
There are various ways to the Japanese characters in the Latin alphabet to transmit ( transcriptions ). According to the most commonly used Hepburn system is 柔 as Ju and 术 as Jutsu transcribed, so composed Jujutsu , is more common internationally but the spelling of Ju Jitsu in Germany and Jiu Jitsu . Occasionally there is also the old German spelling Dschiu Dschitsu . Sometimes be used in different countries and their associations slightly different transcriptions, in part, for modified systems (such as the German Ju Jutsu ).
The Jiu Jitsu was used several other names. The most common were Jiu Jitsu and Yawara ( 柔 , 和 , or 和术 ), but were also the names of [Ju] Tai Jutsu ( 体术 or 胎术 ), Kempo ( 拳法 ) Hakuda ( 白打 ), Aiki [Ju] Jutsu , Kogusoku ( 小具足 ), Koshi no MAWARI ( 腰迴 ), Kumi Uchi ( 组讨 or 组打 ) Torite ( 捕手 or 取手 ) or Shubaku ( 手拍 or 手缚 ) used for the martial arts. 
Principle and Technology
Jiu Jitsu training in an agricultural school in Japan around 1920
The spiritual and philosophical side, such as the Code of Conduct Bushido is just part of Jiu Jitsu, as the different (fighting) techniques. Also go traditional elements such as the bow at the beginning and the practice of kata hand in hand with more advanced elements, such as the belt grades ( Kyu and Dan ) and competitions. Some schools refuse contests because it severely restricting the possibilities of Jiu Jitsu is necessary to avoid injury during the competition.
Within the system, a student first learned Jiu Jitsu elementary school (Japanese Kihon ), consisting of impact, shock, kicks and leg techniques, as well as the fall school ( 受け身 , ukemi ) as a prerequisite for an injury-poor training. Furthermore, the use of is throws , levers and fixing techniques and unarmed defense techniques against attacks against his person and against third parties (such as to choke, wrist and collar touch, punch, kick and weapon attacks), and ground combat taught. The overall fitness is promoted by intense physical training at the beginning of each session.
Development in Japan
A samurai in full armor (1860)
As in many Asian martial arts, the exact origin of Jiu Jitsu is now little more clearly identifiable. This is due to the fact that in the past few printed books on the art and that gave the handwritten manuscripts of the various schools contradict each other and are riddled with myths. The creation stories of the various schools seem to be influenced by the fact that they Jiu Jitsu attributed to legendary roots as possible.
In the creation myths of the basic principle of Jiu Jitsu is “giving in order to win,” particularly clear. It states that Akiyama Shirobei Yoshitoki (in the 16th century in Nagasaki living doctor) on his study tour of China in convents besides medical knowledge and lessons in unarmed combat ( Chinese 白打 báidǎ , Japanese Hakuda) received. He noted the physical strength as a prerequisite for the execution of techniques. Back in Japan, taught the Akiyama Hakuda brought from China, but many of his apprentices turned away from this powerful system emphasized. One winter watching Akiyama, like the massive, however, rigid branches of a pine broke under the weight down coming snow, while the thin branches of a standing next to pasture under the weight of the snow down bow until the snow slid off, to then safely re-establish . Inspired by this observation, he founded the first school of the “art of flexibility” and called Yoshin-Ryu (willow-school). 
Development in Germany
The History of Jiu Jitsu in Germany is the one with the name Erich Rahn , the other with the history of the Kodokan – Judo connected. Rahn, who came from a respected merchant family in Berlin, was to come to Asia through the extensive relationships of his father as a child with the Japanese in contact, from whom he learned a little jiu-jitsu. In the Schumann Circus in Berlin saw the Rahn Jiu Jitsu champion Katsukuma Higashi, who appears to be a superior man by Jiu Jitsu techniques brought to the floor. Rahn was Higashis students and opened in the same year (1906) at the age of 21 years in a back room of a pub in central Berlin, the first German Jiu Jitsu school. It was for him the self-defense in the foreground, behind the Budō standing philosophy hardly played a role. With the “Westernization” and found more and more wrestlers handles, boxing blows and force applied to the input Jiu Jitsu.
Through demonstrations and fights, the police on alert and Rahn 30 June 1910 led Rahn from the Royal Police Department as Jiu Jitsu. Then he rearranged the implementation of the Jiu Jitsu training of the Berlin police and was transferred later to the police. 1913 followed the teaching of Jiu Jitsu at the military hospital in Berlin turn.
At the time of World War I (1914-1918) rested the development of Jiu Jitsu in Germany and was only resumed in 1919. In 1920 he founded in Berlin-Schöneberg “firsts Berlin-Jiu-Jitsu Club” and in 1922 the “German Association of jiu-jitsu fighter.” During the 1920 annual repeat screenings in vaudeville gave Rahn and circuses in Germany, where he fought against famous wrestlers and boxers and challenges accepted by everyone. Of these public battles, Rahn moved 1925 at the age of 40 undefeated years back.
In Germany, the Jiu Jitsu was soon to competitive sport. Sun was in 1922 in the Berlin Sports Palace in Berlin-Schöneberg held the first German Jiu Jitsu Championship, when Rahn against Hans Reuter (Munich) won.
Jiu Jitsu instruction for candidates of the Prussian police at the police school in Brandenburg (August 1924)
During this time, the first Jiu opened Jitsu Club. Alfred Rhode , a student Rahn and later “father of the German Judo” was in August 1921 as a police sports teacher in Berlin for the police in Frankfurt am Main , mixed with the task, where the Jiu Jitsu and introduce to spread. On 10 Founded in October 1922 in Rhode main station in Frankfurt am Main, the “First German Jiu-Jitsu Club eV” with, which was later renamed “First German Judo Club eV”. Also in 1922, founded the Otto melting iron , the first time in 1920 was through his job as a police officer in an officer training course with Jiu Jitsu came into contact, in Wiesbaden, a Jiu Jitsu Club, which was renamed in 1950 in “Judo Club Wiesbaden 1922 eV” . Further association founded in 1922 occurred among others by Max Hoppe in Berlin and August “Ago” Glucker in Stuttgart.
In 1923, Erich Rahn of the “National Association for Jiu Jitsu” – established its first president – the current “German jujitsu ring Erich Rahn V.” Walter Strehlow was. 1926 was held in Cologne, the first German solo championship in Jiu Jitsu. 1929 took place in Frankfurt Palm Garden between the Budokwai London and the First German Jiu-Jitsu Club eV, Frankfurt am Main held the first international judo competitions. In the control agreements between masters Koizumi and Marcus Kaye London and Alfred Rhode, Edgar Schäfer and Philip Broad city of Frankfurt was clear that the Jiu Jitsu is not good for a direct comparison competition is because it is focused primarily on self-defense.
Exercise with Jiu Jitsu handle for protection from raids in 1931
While in Germany in 1930 already 110 Jiu Jitsu clubs were registered, the trend was now for the jujitsu by Kano developed Judo down. 1933, Rhode Alfred the European Judo Union (EJU), whereby Jiu Jitsu and Judo were first separated organizationally from each other. The self-defense system kept the name J. Kano Jiu Jitsu, while the competitive sport of judo got the name. That same year, Kano came to Germany and talked to his students, Dr. Takasaki, Kotani and Dr. Kitabatake of 11 to 22 July in Berlin at the Humboldt University and 11 to 18 Two courses from September in Munich. After a meeting between Kano and the former kingdom of sports leader, the term “Judo” officially launched in Germany.
From 1939 to 1945 due to the war was no further place in combat sports. After the Second World War were the Directive No. 23 on limitation and demilitarization of the sports industry in Germany of the Control Council Law including Jiu Jitsu and Judo of the Allies banned in both Germany and Japan. Only after long negotiations in 1949 was Directive No. 23 gradually in all occupation zones repealed and the first training of Judo and Jiu Jitsu of later released. At the age of 65 years, reopened in 1950, Erich Rahn his school in Berlin-Schöneberg, which had been bombed 1944th
On 20 September 1952 in Stuttgart, the German-Dan College (DSC) was established and the first president was at the age of 56 years, Alfred Rhode. On 8 August 1953 in Hamburg, founded the German Judo Federation (DJB), and three years later by the German Sports Federation (DSB) recognized as a member. 1957 was adopted at the Verbandstag that the testing and training system should remain with the DDK, while the DJB should take over the remaining tasks.
On 1 May 1972, the 87th Erich Rahn’s birthday, appointed this Gdanietz Ditmar , in 1957, his school was joined to his successor. Gdanietz in 1966 was head coach of the German jujitsu ring Erich Rahn eV (DJJR) has become an association that was developed from an informal summary of the students and remote students Rahn. Erich Rahn died on 5 July 1973.
In January 1975, – under the leadership of Hans-Gert low stone (honorary title Hanshi , 10th Dan Jiu Jitsu, 2nd Dan Judo) – by the members of the corporation Dans International Association (KID) of the German Jiu Jitsu Bund e V. (DJJB) as an umbrella organization for all national associations and their clubs and schools in Germany was founded. The DJJB aims to spread and maintenance of Jiu Jitsu and has set the goal as a member of five national associations associations. Hans-Gert low stone was the first president of the DJJB. After the death of Grand Master in 1985 was low stone Dieter Loesgen (honorary title Hanshi , 10th Dan Jiu Jitsu and Judo 1st Dan) and his successor is still president of the DJJB and the KID. 
Until the 1970s, the Jiu Jitsu self defense was anchored in the audit program of the DJB. At the end of the 1980s founded the DJB – because of the popularity and value of Jiu Jitsu – The Federal Group for “Jiu Jitsu in the DJB.” This was dissolved in 1993 because of the DJB had decided to run out of judo Budodisziplinen no further. However, the DJB gave the group no federal approval for a federal and state level recognized, full and independent section Jiu Jitsu. Therefore – in order to nevertheless ensure professional autonomy and teaching and technique of Jiu Jitsu from multiple foreign influences away – by members of the Working Group “Jiu Jitsu in the DJB” in 1982 in Malente, Schleswig-Holstein, the German Ju-Jitsu Union Association (DJJU) founded . The DJJU is an association of national organizations for the purposes of the German Sports Federation (DSB). Their goal is the unity of all jiu Jitsuka and the equality of the Jiu Jitsu in a united Budolandschaft. With eleven regional associations, the DJJU a leading trade association for Jiu Jitsu in Germany.
With the departure of the federal group for “Jiu Jitsu in the DJB” In 1993, the creation of new associations Jiu Jitsu has been initiated. One of these associations, the Kodokan Jiu Jitsu Association (KJJV), was founded in 1993 in Marl. The President is Klaus Möwius – a former student of H.-G. Lower Stone (founder German Jiu Jitsu Federation ) and former teacher of Jochen Kohnert (9th Dan Jiu Jitsu, Judo 5th Dan) and other well-known masters.
Jiu Jitsu as the basis of other martial arts
From the Jiu Jitsu evolved over time, more martial arts, with special emphasis on certain aspects of the overall system Jiu Jitsu or by blending with other martial arts:
Judo is a throwing-heavy style of Jiu Jitsu, the beginning of the 20th Century emerged. Jigoro Kano developed Judo as a martial art attractive for the modern Japanese society as well as close combat system for the Tokyo police. This is an extract from the Jiu Jitsu, which is composed mainly of throwing, choking, joint locks and pinning techniques. Europe dominates the competition judo, traditional Judo by Kano, however, there continues to impact, shock, and kicking techniques, as well as emphasis is placed on training in Kuatsu ( art of car insurance comparison resuscitation ) down.
In aikido are sweeping, circular movements and locking techniques in the foreground. Morihei Ueshiba developed it mainly from Daito-Ryu Aiki-jujutsu , which he of Sokaku Takeda was taught. Aikido emphasizes the picking up and reverse the attack denver martial arts very strongly.
Some Karatedo – Ryu (Japanese style) are influences from the Jiu Jitsu and Kung Fu developed and characterized technically by impact, shock, impact and blocking techniques as well as introduce sweeping. They also include throws, lever, ground fighting techniques and attacks on nerve pressure points .
German Ju Jutsu is a young, from traditional Jiu Jitsu and many other influences composite system that was developed in Germany. To distinguish from the Jiu Jitsu another transcription is used for the same kanji.
In Brazil, this is Brazilian Jiu Jitsu very common, which is a version of Judo with a focus on ground fighting.
Jiu Jitsu is barefoot and in a special suit (Japanese Keikogi trained). For men, it is unusual to wear a T-shirt under the Keikogi, however, women have the right – because of anatomic considerations – an undershirt / shirt / sports bra to wear under their Gi. Both sexes wear underwear under their Gi and if necessary, a jock (jock strap).
The Jiu Jitsu training includes aspects that require special clothing necessary. His clothes (mostly cotton) must be robust so that it does not tear when pulled at her, but also so flexible that the Jiuka can move well in it. For the Jiu Jitsu training can be more robust judo suits, karate suits rather thinner and more recently, special Jiu Jitsu Gis, for example, be worn with leg reinforcements for ground fighting. The uniform clothing while training Jiu Jitsu consists of the following elements:
Keikogi – A suit (Japanese Keikogi) in traditionally white in color – the color and shape may vary from association to association:
Zubon – a laced at the waist pants (Japanese Zubon) with elastic waist and lace-up or
Uwagi – a sturdy jacket (Japanese uwagi) often with a slight lacing inside, but no buttons or zippers and
Obi – a color (for the importance of Webbing see → graduations in Jiu Jitsu ), in some way tied belt (Obi Japanese) keeps the jacket.
The introduction of uniform clothing and a graduation in the martial arts is to understand the socio-historical context of Japan: The importance of traditional martial arts went through the modernization and Westernization of Japan in the Meiji restoration – in which the samurai status was resolved, and handguns were introduced – back as far as possible. Only with the growing Japanese nationalism , the traditional martial arts again gained in importance. They were not seen as obsolete, but as an important part of cultural and national identity. Jigoro Kano founded Kodokan adapted his martial art of the nationalist-militarist period and led a training uniform clothing and the belt system. Thus, the uniform dress as uniforms, according to the grading system can belt colors as a hierarchy of military ranks and the installation in “ranks” are seen as a military formation.
The belt colors of students in grades Jiu Jitsu
In the Jiu Jitsu Dojo there is a hierarchical structure: the teacher (sensei) and the students. The graduation and the skills in Jiu Jitsu is the color of the belt (obi Japanese) clearly – what today is typical of many Japanese martial arts mainly. Jigoro Kano, founder of Kodokan Judo, has this system in the 19th Century used the first time. Previously there were no graduation for belt colors in martial arts from Japan and Okinawa.
More generally, students ( kyu ) and Master degrees ( Dan distinction), where each level is assigned a certain color belt. Everyone starts with a white belt ( 6th Kyu Kyu and 9 ) and undergoes a belt test in order to get to the next higher belt level. The taking of examinations, often serves as an incentive and acknowledgment of achievements, like in many other areas of everyday life.
Depending on the angestrebtem kyu or dan level disclosure of the audit program and the waiting time Bankruptcy – by the association – established. The test itself is respected in many aspects. It is placed next to the correct technology and dynamic design on consumer attention, fighting spirit, concentration and desire of the test value. For a pass are more values, such as the setting, the regular appearance at the training, punctuality, etc. observed, that ultimately determines the overall look.